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Imnurile sacre by Pythagoras. In afara de Imnurile sacre pe care traditia i le atribuie lui Pitagora, volumul mai cuprinde: Viata lui Pitagora scrisa de discipolul sau Porphyr, si Comentarii la Imnurile sacre ale unui alt pitagorician, Hierocles.
Dupa opinia lui Iamblichos, Pitagora a fost primul care a inventat conceptul de filozofie. El o definea ca un efort spre intelepciune, o dragoste de adevar. Intelepciunea era pentru el stiinta adevarului aflat in fiinte, si intelegea prin fiinte tot ceea ce este nematerial, vesnic, esentialmente activ, asa cum sunt toate lucrurile care au o existenta proprie si care raman vesnic si imuabil ceea ce sunt.
La acest adevar se ajungea doar prin exercitiul inteligentei. Dar cum inteligenta noastra este partea divina din noi insine, cu cat se lumineaza prin potolirea tulburarii patimilor si cu cat se purifica prin intermediul dialecticii, cu atat se apropie de puritatea si de lumina Cauzei supreme din care purcede.
Pare sigur ca pitagoricienii au intrevazut si semnalat o forma superioara de cunoastere. Exista o stiinta perfecta, ce consta in cunoasterea naturii si a esentei eterne a lucrurilor si mai ales a ordinii perfecte ce domneste in fenomenele ceresti. Insa aceasta stiinta depaseste cunoasterea omului si ii este interzisa.
Este ceea ce am putea numi intelepciune, care este privilegiul zeilor. Totusi, chiar daca omul tanjeste dupa ea si daca aceasta dorinta face din el un iubitor de intelepciune sau un filozof, el nu o poseda niciodata in perfectiunea sa absoluta; stiinta sa imperfecta se misca in zona schimbarii, a fenomenului, a dezordinii, si efortul curajos si chinuitor pe care il face pentru a o atinge constituie insasi virtutea sa. Scopul doctrinei lui Pitagora, scrie Fabre d’Olivet, “era de a-i lumina pe oameni, de a-i purifica de viciile lor, de a-i izbavi de greselile lor, de a-i conduce la virtute si la adevar; si, dupa ce i-a facut sa treaca prin toate gradele intelegerii si inteligentei, de a-i face asemenea Zeilor nemuritori”.
Prin cunoastere se obtine adevarul, spune Porphyr, “si adevarul este singurul lucru care ne poate apropia de zei”, caci, asa cum spune Pitagora, “Zeul are drept trup lumina si drept suflet adevarul”.
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Pythagoras, one of the most famous and controversial ancient Greek philosophers, lived from ca. He spent his early years on the island of Samos, off the coast of modern Turkey.
At the age of forty, however, he emigrated to the city of Croton in southern Italy and most of his philosophical activity occurred there. Pythagoras wrote nothing, nor were there any detailed accounts of Pythagoras, one of the most famous and controversial ancient Greek philosophers, lived from ca.
Pythagoras wrote nothing, nor were there any detailed accounts of his thought written by contemporaries. By the first centuries BCE, moreover, it became fashionable to present Pythagoras in a largely unhistorical fashion as a semi-divine figure, who originated all that was true in the Greek philosophical tradition, including many of Plato’s and Aristotle’s mature ideas.
A number of treatises were forged in the name of Pythagoras and other Pythagoreans in order to support this view. The Pythagorean question, then, is how to get behind this false glorification of Pythagoras in order to determine what the historical Pythagoras actually thought and did.
In order to obtain an accurate appreciation of Pythagoras’ achievement, it is important to rely on the earliest evidence before the distortions of the later tradition arose.
Mudra- Arta gesturilor sacre
The popular modern image of Pythagoras is that of a master mathematician and scientist. The early evidence shows, however, that, while Pythagoras was famous in his own day and even years later in the time of Plato and Aristotle, it was not mathematics or science upon which his fame rested.
Pythagoras was famous 1 as an expert on the fate of the soul after death, who thought that the soul was immortal and went through a series of reincarnations; 2 as an expert on religious ritual; 3 as a wonder-worker who had a thigh of gold and who could be two places at the same time; 4 as the founder of a strict way of life that emphasized dietary restrictions, religious ritual and rigorous self discipline.
The early evidence suggests, however, that Pythagoras presented a cosmos that was structured according to moral principles and significant numerical relationships and may have been akin to conceptions of the cosmos found in Platonic myths, such as those at the end of the Phaedo and Republic. There is evidence pitqgora he valued relationships between numbers pitagor as those embodied in the so-called Pythagorean theorem, though it is not likely that he proved the theorem.
Mudra- Arta gesturilor sacre – [PDF Document]
Pythagoras’ pitaora was developed in a more scientific and mathematical direction by his successors in the Pythagorean tradition, Philolaus and Archytas. Pythagoras succeeded in promulgating a new more optimistic view of the fate of the soul after death and in founding a way of life that was attractive for its rigor and discipline and that drew to him numerous devoted followers.
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