Hallervorden-Spatz disease now more commonly known as Pantothenate kinase -associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare autosomal. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), also known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 1 (NBIA1), also called Hallervorden–Spatz syndrome, is a degenerative disease of the. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), formerly called Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome, is a rare, inherited neurological movement disorder.

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While portions of the dieease pallidus and pars reticulata of the substantia nigra SN have high iron content in healthy individuals, individuals with HSD have excess amounts of iron deposited in these areas. Computed tomography CT scanning CT imaging is not very helpful in the diagnosis of HSD but may exhibit hypo-density in the basal ganglia and some atrophy of the brain.

Lyon G, et al. However, these findings were not confirmed in adult patients. A case of Hallervorden-spatz disease: J Child Neurol ; Hypertonia is usually a combination of rigidity and spasticity and may be difficult to treat.

Iron accumulation in syndromes of neurodegeneration with sptaz iron accumulation 1 and 2: You may also experience involuntary muscle contractions that cause abnormal posture or slow, recurring movements.

Dysarthria may respond to medications used for rigidity and spasticity. Because of severe dystonia in limbs and tongue muscles, he was unable to eat easily as you can see in movie.

Others have a slower progression or can plateau for long periods of time and continue to function into the third decade of life. In other hallerborden, symptoms may begin at approximately six to eight months of age, at which time infants may experience delays or an arrest in the acquisition of skills slatz the coordination of mental and physical activities delayed psychomotor development.

This disorder primarily affects people of Portuguese heritage. Case 4 A year-old man presented with dysphagia, motor difficulties, and speech problems.


Hallervorden-Spatz disease HSD is also known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation or pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. If an individual receives one normal gene and one gene for the disease, the person will be a carrier for the disease but usually will not show symptoms.

Hallervorden-Spatz disease

Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology. Molecular genetic testing for the full gene sequence of the PANK2 gene is the gold standard way to make this diagnosis. Their discovery was brought about by a diagnosis of a family of 12 in which five sisters exhibited progressively increasing dementia and dysarthria. However, the exact role of iron in the etiology of this disease remains unknown. Here we present four HSD cases with different clinical pictures. We describe hallervrden child with pathologically proven Hallervorden Spatz disease.

N Engl J Med ; This gene encodes the enzyme pantothenate kinase, and mutations in the gene lead to an inborn error of vitamin B5 pantothenate metabolism. Additional symptoms often develop including progressive cognitive impairment, muscle weakness, seizures and behavioral or personality changes.

Because rare disorders like PKAN often go unrecognized, these disorders may be under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed, spqtz it difficult to determine the accuracy of these estimates. Unusual phenotypes, novel PANK2 mutations, and undetermined genetic forms.

Iron chelation in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. University of Washington, Seattle; Together we are strong.

Neuroacanthocytosis is a general term for a group of rare progressive disorders characterized by the association of misshapen, spiny red blood cells acanthocytosis and neurological abnormalities, especially movement disorders. Symptoms of the following disorders can be similar to those hallervordn PKAN. Water kefir is a beverage favored for its fizzy flavor and probiotic content.

This article reviews the benefits and uses of water kefir and provides a…. Contributed by Jinnah Hospital; Lahore, Pakistan. In cases of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation NBIA that are not caused by PKAN, the movement-related symptoms such as dystonia may be very spata.

Batten disease is sometimes considered the juvenile form of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses NCLs. This is a progressive degeneration of the nerve-rich membrane lining the eyes retinaresulting in tunnel vision, night blindness, and loss of peripheral vision.


Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration – NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)

Another common feature is degeneration of the retina, resulting in progressive night blindness and loss of peripheral side vision. Tremor in patients with HSD responds best to dopaminergic agents. She had severe asymptomatic twisting tremor in hands.

Journal of computer assisted tomography. Hallervorden and Spatz diseasr described the disease, in as a form of familial brain degeneration characterized by iron deposition in the brain. Behari Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. The frequency of PKAN is estimated to be one to three per million individuals worldwide. Common speech problems are repetition of words or phrases palilaliarapid speech tachylaliaand dysarthria. Anesthesia for patients with pantothenate-kinase-associated neurodegeneration Hallervorden-Spatz disease – A literature review.

Hallervorden-Spatz Disease

Because of the limited ability to protect themselves during falls, children may have repeated injury to the face and chin. Some people have been diagnosed in infancy or adulthood, and some of those affected have characteristics that are between the two categories.

These early agents were proven ineffective and can cause anemia. Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging. Medications such as methscopolamine bromide can be attempted for excessive drooling.

Etiology Hallervorden Spatz disease was first described in by two German physicians, Hallervorden and Spatz, as a form of familial brain degeneration characterized by cerebral iron deposition and hence the nallervorden so.

Nil Conflict of Interest: If dopaminergic agents are not effective against dystonia, anticholinergics can be used, but they offer only transient relief.