This is a reprint of the English Translation of the Nyaya Sutras of Gautama by Mm . Dr. Ganganatha Jha, the versatile Sanskrit scholar who will ever be. Where There’s Smoke There’s Fire: Gautama’s Nyāya-Sūtra. Posted on 10 December The Nyāya-Sūtra inaugurates a tradition of logical and. Nyaya: Gautama’s Nyaya-sutra, with Vatsyayana’s commentary (Indian philosophy in its sources) [Gautama (Authority on Nyayasastra)] on *FREE*.

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Or, if that be valid, then our nyayw is not invalid. The reply given in aphorisms 12, IS, 14, 15 and 10, represents the views of Brahma nic philosophers who regard perception as a real act and objects as self-existent entities. Sound is cognised in that manner i.

Nyāya Sūtras – Wikipedia

The past and future cannot be established by a mexs mutual reference. Perception has been described as knowledge, and knowledge implies the soul which is its abode. But a comes into existence at the third moment when i has already perished. Hence verbal testimony is not inference.

But i when converted into y loses its own nature. Hence it is urged by some that a word noun denotes genus. Hinduism Other Indian philosophies. The objection runs thus: The Nyaya-sutras assert the premise that “all knowledge is not intrinsically valid”, that “most knowledge is not valid unless proven” and “truth exists whether we human beings know it or not”. Brahmana who propounded a sytem of zutra called Samkhya, but his work on the subject not having come down to us in its yautama form we are not in a position to ascertain what relation it bore to the Vedas or nyayq kind of reception was given toil by the orthodox Brahmanas.

Suppose that a sound is produced by an axe striking against a tree.

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If there were no whole there would, it is replied, be non-perception of all. Others again say that sound arises from the concussion of elements, requires no abode, and is subject to production and destruction. This is absurd, hence the three kinds of quibble are different from one another. There is, some say, no soul other than the mind because the arguments which are adduced to establish the ” soul” are applicable to the mind.

IV-XIa quarterly journal devoted to Sanskrit learning, over a period of eight years from to Motilal Banarsidass Publishers; New edition edition Language: It is supposed by them to be tainted with the faults of untruth, contradiction and tautology.

This is not so, because the non-existence ab- sence of a mark serves as suutra mark in relation to the pre- sence of the mark.

The Nyaya-Sutras Of Gautama: With The Bhasya Of Vatsyayana And The Vartika Of Uddyotakara

A soul which is no longer subject to transmigration is freed from all pains. In the case of colour, however, the manifestation takes place just at the time when the jar comes into union with the lamp. This reprint of the great work is issued in response to the increasing demand of the scholars.

Truth and conditionally are incompatible terms. Enter your mobile number or email address below and we’ll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. In fact the tra- ditionary teaching would, according to the objectors, be impossible if the sounds were non-eternal.

As the ray of the eye is not perceived even during the night we must conclude that it does not possess obviousness of colour. Equal to the question is the reason which pro- vokes the very question for the solution of which it was employed.

Hence percep- tion establishes itself and the objects of sense]. When this is done, his faults, viz. But how can we throw a thing into obscurity which never possessed manifestation? The whole world is a network of relations. Here from the reason there have been drawn two opposite conclusions, viz. Just as gold is modified into a bracelet without relinquishing the general notion of gold, so the letter i undergoes modification as y without relinquishing the general notion of letters.


Therefore the connec- tion involved in inference is not of the same kind as that involved in verbal testimony.

And thesenses subservient to the purposes of man have dutra set in order by his deserts. There is, says Vatsyuyana, no fixed rule that the means of right knowledge should precede the objects of right knowledge or should suc- ceed thorn or be simultaneous with them. If on the other hand they do not partake of the nature of senses, then it is to be admitted that colour, sound, etc.

The letters cannot be modified if you say that they are eternal because modification is the reverse of eternalness.

J Kalidasa’s Raghuvamsaui We maintain that repetition is possible even if the things repeated are ” other” or different. Of two opposite things the non-existence of one establishes the existence of the other, eq.

It is doubtful as to whether a sense is material or all-pervading because there is perception when there is contact with the eye-bull and nnyaya is perception even when the eye-ball is far off. Hence like the spell and medical science the Veda must be accepted as authoritative. This page was last edited on 10 Octoberat The special kinds of knowledge are the five varieties of perception, viz.