Ecuatiile Maxwell Modificare · Istoric · Talk (0) Ecuațiile lui Maxwell. A nu se confunda cu relațiile lui Maxell din termodinamică. Relațiile lui Maxell. Ecuatiile lui Maxwell in teoria unitaria neolonoma. Front Cover. Gheorghe Vranceanu. Institutul de arte grafice si editura Glasul Bucovinei, – 10 pages. The Maxwell equations are fluidlike equations that describe the creation and flow of Ecuaţiile lui Maxwell se aseamănă cu cele ale fluidelor.

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The term “Maxwell’s equations” is often also used for equivalent alternative formulations. Term search Jobs Translators Clients Forums. A version of this law was included in the original equations by Maxwell but, by convention, is included no longer.

The bound charge is most conveniently described in terms of the polarization P of the material, its dipole moment per unit volume. See the main article on constitutive relations for a fuller description. The relativistic formulations are even more symmetric and manifestly Lorentz invariant. The Theory of the Electromagnetic Field.

In the electric and magnetic field formulation there are four equations that determine the fields for given charge and current distribution.

Maxwell’s equations seem overdeterminedin that they involve six unknowns the three components of E and B but eight equations one for each of the two Gauss’s laws, three vector components each for Faraday’s and Ampere’s laws.

In terms of field lines, this equation states that magnetic field lines neither begin nor end but make loops or extend to infinity and back. Maxwe,l equations specifying this response are called constitutive relations.

Time dilation Mass—energy equivalence Length contraction Relativity of simultaneity Relativistic Doppler effect Thomas ecuatiioe Ladder paradox Twin paradox.

A separate law of naturethe Lorentz force law, describes how, conversely, the electric and magnetic field act on charged particles and currents. The static electric field points away from positive charges and towards negative charges, and the net outflow of the electric field lul any closed surface is proportional to the charge enclosed by the surface. Electromagnetic tensor stress—energy tensor. Principles and Techniques of Applied Mathematics.


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Review native language verification applications submitted by your peers. Maxwell’s equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetismclassical optics lu, and electric circuits.

Propagation of Electromagnetic Signals. In some cases, Maxwell’s equations are solved over the whole of space, and boundary conditions are given as asymptotic limits at infinity.

For a general description of electromagnetism, see Electromagnetism. Peer comments on this answer and responses from the answerer. If P is uniform, a macroscopic separation of charge is produced only at the surfaces where P enters and leaves the material. Covariant formulation Electromagnetic tensor stress—energy tensor Four-current Electromagnetic four-potential.

English term or phrase: The microscopic Maxwell equations have universal applicability, but are unwieldy for common calculations.

Although these were described in the popular press as the long-awaited discovery of magnetic monopoles, they are only superficially related.

ecuaţiile lui Maxwell – English translation – Romanian-English dictionary

Reviewing applications can be lki and only takes a few minutes. They relate the electric and magnetic fields to total charge and total current, including the complicated charges and currents in materials at the atomic scale.

Maxwell’s equations can be formulated with possibly time-dependent surfaces and volumes by using the differential version and using Gauss and Stokes formula appropriately. John Wiley and Sons. Combining the right hand side, Gauss’s law, and interchange of derivatives gives:. These bound currents can be described using the magnetization M.

Recently, scientists have discovered that some types of condensed matter, ecatiile spin ice and topological insulatorswhich display emergent behavior resembling magnetic monopoles.

This reduces the four Maxwell equations to maxwelo, which simplifies the equations, although we can no longer use the familiar vector formulation. Even more generally, in the case of non-linear materials see for example nonlinear opticsD and P are not necessarily proportional to Esimilarly H or M is not necessarily proportional to Ecuatiille.

The speed calculated for electromagnetic waves, which could be predicted from experiments on charges and currents, [note 2] exactly matches the speed of light ; indeed, light is one form of electromagnetic radiation as are X-raysradio wavesand others. Symbols in bold represent vector quantities, and symbols in italics represent scalar quantities, unless otherwise indicated. Close and don’t show again Close.


Similarly rewriting the magnetic flux in Gauss’s law for magnetism in integral form gives. Some general remarks follow.

The connection to angular momentum suggests the picture of an assembly of microscopic current loops. However, Jefimenko’s equations are unhelpful in situations when the charges and currents are themselves affected by the fields they create.

Popular variations on the Maxwell equations as a classical theory of electromagnetic fields are relatively scarce because the standard equations have stood the test of time remarkably well. Outside the material, an assembly of such microscopic current loops is not different from a macroscopic current circulating around the material’s surface, despite the fact that no individual charge is traveling a large distance.

An alternative viewpoint on the microscopic equations is that they are the macroscopic equations together with the statement that vacuum behaves like a perfect linear “material” without additional polarisation and magnetisation.

They charged a leyden jar a kind of capacitorand measured the electrostatic force associated with the potential; then, they discharged it while measuring the magnetic force from the current in the discharge wire. The dynamically induced electric field has closed field lines similar to a magnetic field, unless superposed by a static charge induced electric field. It can be proven that any system satisfying Faraday’s law and Ampere’s law automatically also satisfies the two Gauss’s laws, as long as the system’s initial condition does.