models in the package: (1) an additive measurement error model, where the goal is to estimate the density or distribution function from contaminated data; (2) nonparametric regression Wang, X.F. and Wang, B. (). Grade 2 English Model Curriculum 3 · Grade 3 English Grades English Model Curriculum March ELA DECON STAND · ELA K Author manuscript; available in PMC May In this paper, we present a new software package decon for R, which contains a collection of The regression estimate from the uncontaminated sample (dashed line) gives an accurate . 2. Deconvolution methods in measurement error problems.
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Visit for more related articles at Journal of Defense Management. On March 11, the largest earthquake in Japanese history, measuring 9. The quake triggered a massive tsunami which just moments later overwhelmed settlements and caused catastrophic damage to coastal prefectures. Just a few short days later, on March 14, Japan took unprecedented action when it established a joint task fformat to oversee all response operations.
These operations included involvement from ground, air, and maritime forces working collectively with their Japanese counterparts to provide formaf relief efforts where no others could. This is done by identifying successes, decony, and general lessons learned for future disaster response application and collaboration.
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On March 11, at 2: At first thought to be a single giant earthquake, the series of tremors occurred in succession a mere 6 minutes from start to finish; registering at an unprecedented 9. For,at quake resulted in a horizontal sheer displacement of nearly 20 meters on the Pacific floor. So significant was the quake, it was felt across multiple regions ranging from all the way from Chile to Alaska.
The resulting tremors unleashed tormat total of seven waves over a course of 6 hours; the greatest of which hammered the coast with waves as tall as meters and reaching as far decony 6 miles inland.
The catastrophic effects of the year event far exceeded all design and planning standards — causing destruction to homes, businesses, public services, medical care facilities and infrastructure of all types.
The loss of property and services paled in significance to the 28, dead or missing across Japan [ 1 ]. After early assessmentsit was clear that formar the complete mobilization of all civil and military forces would be insufficient to support acute and long-term formt operations.
Only with the support of its allies could Japan overcome its greatest obstacle since World War II and bring stability and a renewed sense of hope to its people [ 2 ]. More specifically, nuclear energy accounts for the majority of electricity consumed by Tokyo and surrounding areas [ 3 ] On March 11, just 26 minutes after the first earthquake, the tsunami that hit mainland Japan caused significant damage to the Nuclear Power Plant in Fukushima Daiichi approximately miles North of Tokyo.
The plant consisted of six nuclear reactors and a series of spent-fuel pools containing a highly radioactive byproduct of the decay heat nuclear power process. While, the reactors themselves were protected in two-meter edcont concrete structure housing vessels, the spent-fuel pools, were much less protected within an unhardened facility construct.
Both the active and inactive fuels required constant circulation of water to prevent overheating and destabilization. The facility design standards required that both the primary and backup power supplies needed to ensure water circulationwere meters above ground level.
The damage sustained as a result of the tsunami quickly overwhelmed electrical production and distribution systems which in turn raised water temperatures and exposed the radioactive material to the air. The process heat combined with the mixed properties of zirconium, oxygen and hydrogen caused reactors 1 and 3 to explode early the morning of March 12, These forces would focus on the earthquake response operations while a parallel Central Readiness Force Commander would focus on the mitigation of the ongoing nuclear crisis [ 4 ].
Shortly after the first impacts of the tsunami were felt, the Government of Japan Decint realized, even after the large mobilization of forces, that it would need support from its allies to address growing humanitarian needs.
Based on early collaboration with the US Embassy in Tokyo, USAID deployed a Disaster Assistance Response Tca to establish a Bilateral Assistance Coordination Cell to implement a sustainable coordination process within which the US and GoJ could develop consequence management activities to transition from the critical phase of the foramt to a longer-term stabilization process.
After receiving a request, the coordination cell worked to match the unique need through a resource mapping process in order to determine if the capability was available within country and to confirm that the US possessed the comparative advantage to yva support and avoid duplication.
These groups negotiated initial monitoring efforts and the long-term transition of the mission, along with all other components of air, ground and sea radiation monitoring operations, back to the GoJ. Rather than inappropriately thrusting capabilities and services upon GoJ, the coordination cell developed a controlled and methodical process for determining and coordinating aid. This process went against the grain, in many regards, where forces at times attempted to negotiate support operations, based on in-theater capabilities, at lower echelons [ 5 ].
Specifically, US Forces Japan worked to align capabilities to complement the ongoing response. It was through this organizational structure that Bilateral Assistance Coordination Cell would provide all agreed upon support requirements and with which the Japan Self-Defense Force JTF would coordinate the operational and tactical elements of support.
The capability and unrivaled response the US military has brought to recent crisis has changed not only the way the military is used but the way that people and governments think of the military.
In line with traditional national security priorities, it is assumed that the US Government considered the welfare of US citizens as the top priority when organizing response operations. These examples will be used later in this document to identify both success stories and areas where further analysis or corrective measures are needed. On March 17, with growing concerns of airborne radiation particulates from the reactor breach, the DoS authorized the voluntary evacuation of all DoS dependent family members within a mile radius of the Fukushima Plant.
Based on all known plume modeling predictions used to anticipate airborne radiation migration based on wind conditions and weathermuch of the radiation would likely spread away from mainland Tv and back towards the Pacific Ocean. The majority of military installations resided well outside of the 25 nautical mile radius where primary health risks were identified to be most prevalent by US Pacific Command Operational Exposure Guidance .
In addition, several measures were implemented fformat US installations to protect the well-being of residents including the pre-placement of fogmat radiation detection devicesPotassium Iodide KI tablets used to protect against absorption of radioactive iodide into the thyroid glandand personal protective suits and equipment on the unlikely chance that contamination would occur. Despite these fformat and the remoteness of exposure, DoS and Fogmat erred on the side of caution. In addition to the radiation defont itself, US policymakers also had to contend with potential for hysteresis 201 US citizens as they were decnt of the radiation contamination risk that formag only nautical miles away.
The liability and external perception of not authorizing a voluntary departure at the expense of the US government would have tv a very emotional and a likely very political situation for both DoS and DoD officials. With the small amount of information available regarding susceptibility of the cormat and water supply to cross-contamination, the risk of both real and imagined dangers were significant threats to US installations across Japan. The contamination of 201 water supply was later found to formaat very real as radioactive iodine was found in the Tokyo water supply on two separate occasions from March Based on all these factors, the voluntary evacuation of US citizens from Japan now appears wholly appropriate.
Deconvolution estimation in measurement error models: The R package decon
Many DoS families lived miles closer to the contamination posed by the Fukushima plant albeit still well outside the mile primary standoff than did the counterpart DoD families. Once DoS dexont the return of their dependents, DoD had little choice but to follow suit given the potential appearance of disproportionate policies.
The voluntary evacuation policy further allowed the US Government to assist US citizens without giving the perception of abandoning Japan. It was essential to leverage the contract carriers early on; had the radiation plume come closer and closer to US installations, requiring a complete evacuation, it became less and less likely that carriers would have operated in known contaminated environments.
Deconvolution Estimation in Measurement Error Models: The R Package decon
Making the decision to voluntarily evacuate personnel with commercial airlines early in the process eased the burden of fomrat having to evacuate all personnel with military airlift later on [ 6 ].
As a result of deliberations between the US and Japan and the creation 2011 a bilateral radiation monitoring group, JTF as xecont lead for all US military capabilities, coordinated with the Department of Energy DoE to conduct the radiological mapping operations needed to determine the location and concentration of radiation contamination [ 4 ].
This process confirmed exact locations and movement patterns of the radiation rather than relying exclusively on computer-aided models. The Squadron provided two air platforms from which DoE personnel could calibrate equipment and measure radiation levels.
Based on US government directives which were rumored to have come from as high up as the President himselfthe mission priorities were to first observe locations with American citizens, such as the Tokyo embassy and local military installations, for signs of contamination. The UH-1 was ideal for this mission set based on its ability to fly as low as feet above ground level and at relatively slow speeds.
The result of these dexont missions indicated very little risk to US personnel who were still a significant distance from the main concentration decknt radiation. Although dosimeter readings on the ground indicated the same earlier in the week, ddcont was comforting to validate the absence of airborne particulates as well.
The C was the first airframe to execute missions over the Fukushima plant and was the first to baseline airborne contamination levels. Whereas the UH-1 was used for more isolated areas, the C could fly at much higher decony while at an atypically-low profiles of 1, feet above ground level. The value of the readings improved over time as a closer synergy was ultimately developed between the Airmen flying the aircraft and to the scientists taking the measurements. This innovative new mission, although ultimately transferred to the Japanese Self-Defense Force, provided an essential component to recovery operations that would not have happened in such a short timeframe without US military involvement.
While the aircrews became more efficient at both flying and training their peers to fly the unique mapping missions, these assignments brought significant risk to both themselves and their aircraft. During one C mission, while flying along the eastern seaboard, DoE scientists identified higher-than-normal radiation levels on the aircraft.
After flying for a bit to see if the levels would subside, the DoE experts concluded that their aircraft had flown through an eddy of radiation matter.
Fearing for their safety and the long-term functionality of the aircraft, the aircrew reported the incident back to Yokota.
Although the procedures for the handling of contaminated aircraft had been formally codified, it was far from something the Air Force practiced regularly and was not well understood by practitioners in the field or at the tactical level. The feasibility of this type of event had been discussed extensively before the missions started, but given the cecont of the mapping operations, the risk was acknowledged as a necessity.
Upon returning back to Yokota, the radiation was deemed to be low enough in quantity to not pose a significant health risk. Further, a simple soap bath eliminated the contamination on the external frame of the aircraft. Despite what was ultimately a benign incident, the incident exemplified the risks taken aircrews every day.
The occurrence also signified the unpredictable nature of the winds and that the plume modeling, although effective, was far from completely reliable. At the time the aircraft flew through the contamination, the team was flying well upwind and outside of any modeled radiation.
The incident reinforced the value of having real world data and the value of the mapping operations. To add further context, a later decision to evacuate a US Naval Port in Yokosuka, Japan was made thanks in large part to data generated on prevailing wind directions during mapping surveys [ 9 ]. The development of a Pacific Command-specific contamination threshold matrix identified specific risks to personnel, equipment, vehicles, and aircraft and developed procedures for new shelter-in-place, evacuation, and decontamination processes.
These developments marked significant safety improvements in the field of radiological contamination for the US military and built a methodical set of thresholds to inform and direct US forces and families. For example, at Misawa Air Base, wastewater collection points were vecont to store known contaminated water in fuel bladders; this process resulted in the safe collection of 7, gallons of contaminated rinse water from aircraft washing operations [ 10 ].
Efforts were also made to standardize decontamination procedures cormat returning aircrews and ground crews in the instance that they were ever contaminated. This concept provided a proven fformat and consequence management capability throughout the region [ 11 ].
Defense deployed 80 personnel from the Japanese Internal Bureau across these Bilateral Coordination Centers to help simplify the processes. The Japanese Tohoku Defense Bureau also dispatched language officials to each of the centers to help with translation and to streamline discussions fprmat to help clarify capabilities and roles and responsibilities between the two nations [ 12 ].
In turn, these deconh would make the final push of supplies into initially Yamagata and eventually Sendai upon its opening.
CRAN – Package decon
The USS Reagan, which was originally scheduled to participate in an exercise on Sendai Bay on March 13,was ideally placed to provide search and recovery operations using PC-3 patrol aircraft and helicopter airframes. The mere presence of the Reagan in the bay was said to have brought a sense of hope to the Japanese people [ 4 ]. The US had the logistics structure needed to transport additional Japanese Self-Defense Force personnel from around the country to support frontline operations.
While Tvw carrier-based aircraft landed on Self-Defense Force ships dormat pick up and transport supplies inland, US ships also transported critically-needed supplies. Immediately following the Great East Earthquake of Japan, both Narita International and Haneda Airports were closed for several days as a result tvx their close proximity to the Eastern Seaboard. Although not directly impacted by radiation fallout, both airports were devastated by the earthquakes and resulting tsunamis.