Bochenek A, Reicher M. Anatomia człowieka. Układ nerwowy ośrodkowy. Bober T, Zawadzki J. Biomechanika układu ruchu człowieka, Wydawnictwo BK. Schirmer, M., Neurochirurgia, Urban & Partner, Wroclaw, , wyb. fragm. 5. Bober, T., Zawadzki, J., Biomechanika ukladu ruchu czlowieka, BK, Wroclaw, Bober, T., Zawadzki, J.: Biomechanika układu ruchu człowieka. Wydawnictwo BK, Wrocław () 5. Herr, H.: Exoskeletons and orthoses: classification, design.

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The mere balance of forces is not enough to maintain the system so unstable in the upright position. Traffic is not the sum of the multi-faceted range of motion tested separately at different levels.

Several physical models in the paper effectively deter most of the medical audience. It is a movement, we can not see with the naked eye, but is crucial for us. We can see who is faster. But bony structures inside the body, visible only on X-ray imaging, possibly visible by magnetic resonance imaging.

System designed to evaluate the most significant developments for the assessment of the musculoskeletal system to fulfill it is task if it is available where it is most needed, namely in the doctor’s office. Depending on the richness of complete traffic conditions in which movement takes place. Regardless of whether we are aware of their presence or not, the body must be balanced.

That’s how the system Photogrametric Body Explorer meets the demands described above. Preferably one that exploration and development of data housed in a single visit. Setting the articular surface between the articular vertebral appendages L4, L5 and S1 in the sagittal plane significantly reduces rotational movements of the spine. Andrzeja Tokarczyka that such a task is feasible, has given to others. Some of the great respect for others are moving in their own world.

His perception of space – he claims – are limited to two dimensions. Abolished the movement of certain body parts is a prerequisite for the effective operation of the system of so many degrees of freedom of movement.


Something must be done with this excess. These worlds differ not only vocabulary, but mostly the logic of thinking.

Bober, Tadeusz ( ). [WorldCat Identities]

In examining the mechanism for the maintenance of upright posture should be assessed on the one hand immobilization, stabilization, on the other hand mobility. Enrichment of photogrammetric biiomechanika for studying the movement of muscles electromiograph registrant is a result of such thinking. It is a reaction to the force of gravity. Progress began with the invention of the camera. They are mutually orthogonal planes intersecting at the center of gravity.

If we assume a central role in the process of skeletal balancing the forces of gravity, then a precise indication of its attitude is becoming an important task. However we can not easily estimate the movement of the engine, suspension, traction conditions, etc.

In the current clinical practice, we examine separately the range of motion in the frontal, sagittal and transverse. Expected Photogrammetric system should record both the spatial location of all body segments. The ability to limit the mobility of conditioning the system support is just as important as mobility. Spot provides even more information from less data Tokar et al.

Currently we know that if you want to explore movement, we have to measure and evaluate such as motion parameters as: Even more are affected by measurement error marker on the stalk, often used in the measurement of motion, which makes them completely unsuitable to assess the spatial dependence test segments.

Greater ukwdu for spatial ukady can not be expected from the medics. Photogrammetric systems generate a large amount of data.

Bober, Tadeusz (1932- ).

And why not on the basis of images to evaluate not only the look, he might be able to measure something that is depicted? Although the movement is an experience every one of us can encounter, understanding of its physical phenomena is a matter of controversy for centuries. At each test level, the scheme of forces may be different. Robert Koprowski Image processing and analysis.


These conditions determine the anatomical structure. The size of such space shall not exceed the size of the rooms encountered in this type of health-care centers, or 4 x 5m. Stiffener, the abolition of joint mobility means that determines the strength of the anti-bone structure, rather than muscle strength. The photographic image as objectively reflects the appearance of the body, stops time and traffic.

Another expectation is the time of measurement and time to obtain results. This contradiction courts reconcile Aristotle in the fourth century BC explaining that the motion is a deliberate desire appropriate to each location.

Robert Koprowski

Frontal plane defines lateral movements, sagittal flexion and extension movements, lateral movements and rotation. With the result, almost all the other movements. The movement of the body to maintain upright posture is a fundamental human movement. Position and orientation in space of bones during movement: This condition poses another problem to solve. The same function in people with impaired efficiency of the motor system significantly increases the energy ikadu that exceed the paraplegics in six resting until the demand system Ronikier The human body consists of mobile segments, resulting in more than degrees of lax movement Bober et al.

From the standpoint of physics can be compared to a system of inverted czowiieka rigid, stacked one on another, in a state of unstable equilibrium Fig. Already inBernstein argued that the motion control based on the reduction of degrees of lax kinematic chains. The bber evokes awe but bio and distance in people with technical education. Let us look closer at this phenomenon.

It is very important that the marker on the skin corresponds exactly to the designated point of bone.